C 5 phototherapy decreases the need for exchange transfusion in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Outcome of exchange blood transfusions done for neonatal jaundice in. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35. Jaundice that persists after day 14 in term babies and day 21 in preterm babies and is more common in breast fed babies. Cbs must be notified of the reason for the transfusion so the exchange unit is prepared appropriately. Although medications that impact bilirubin metabolism have been used in studies, drugs are not ordinarily used in unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Frequency of exchange transfusion in newborns with neonatal. Recent advances in the management of neonatal jaundice jon f watchko division of newborn medicine, department of pediatrics, university of pittsburgh school of medicine, mageewomens research institute, pittsburgh, pa, usa abstract. This guideline also covers partial exchange for treatment of polycythaemia. Screening of infants for hyperbilirubinemia to prevent. Exchange transfusion should be reserved for infants in whom intensive. Neonatal exchange transfusion neonatal 5 partial volume exchange to lower hematocrit to lower hematocrit.
Neonatal jaundice can affect up to 84% of term newborns and is often a benign process that is quickly corrected once identified. A double volume exchange transfusion is replacingthe babys total blood volume twice, leaving theintravascular amount the same. Indications for exchange transfusion vary see figure 178. Jaundice is a common and usually harmless condition in newborn babies that causes yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Exchange transfusion is a potentially lifesaving procedure that is done to counteract the effects of serious jaundice or changes in the blood due to diseases such as sickle cell anemia. Guideline for management of neonatal jaundice birth weight total serum bilirubin mgdl healthy baby sick baby phototherapy exchange transfusion. Exchange transfusion for jaundiced newborns in the united statesexchange transfusion is the replacement of blood from newborn infants with elevated bilirubin level in their blood stream with donor blood containing normal bilirubin levels. A total serum bilirubin level at or above the exchange transfusion level should be. Management no action for the vast majority of babies with physiological jaundice measure the serum bilirubin the level of serum bilirubin actually indicates what treatment is required. Case based pediatrics chapter university of hawaii.
Exchange transfusion et is effective in preventing bilirubininduced neurologic dysfunction in infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia. To answer this question in general terms, safety and efficacy data see below will be evaluated from clinical trials comparing ebt with either no. Clinical presentation of hdn varies from mild jaundice and anemia to hydrops fetalis with ascites, pleural and pericardial effusions. Jaundice is caused by bilirubin deposition in the skin. Original articles phototherapy and exchange transfusion for. Blood exchange transfusion neonatal jaundice youtube. Bilisphere 360 is effective in reducing needs for exchange transfusion and duration of phototherapy. Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Guideline treatment of the hemolytic and nonhemolytic 2500 gram newborn see. A neonate refers to an infant in the first 28 days of life. Exchange transfusion for jaundiced newborns in the united. Recognize indications for initiating, continuing and discontinuing phototherapy andor exchange transfusion.
An approach to the management of hyperbilirubinemia in the. High levels of unbound unconjugated bilirubin can cross the bloodbrain barrier and cause. It is also the most common cause for hospital readmission for neonates post birth. Exchange transfusion for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. For table 1 above, phototherapy is usually started at 50% to 70% of the maximum indirect levels. Although there are many welldescribed risks with exchange transfusion, mortality should be low less than 0.
June 2015, 1 of 14 neonatal clinical practice guideline. An exchange transfusion reverses or counteracts the symptoms of jaundice or other blood diseases, such as sickle cell anemia. Efficiently obtain appropriate consultative services for infants with cholestatic jaundice or possible pathologic underlying condition. Jaundice 2 exchange transfusion is the replacement of blood from newborn infants with elevated bilirubin level in their blood stream with donor blood containing normal bilirubin levels. The aim is to remove antibody coated red cells and excess bilirubin and increase haemoglobin hb. Advances in the clinical assessment strategies used to identify neonates at risk for the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity, as. Neonatal exchange transfusion in a nontertiary hospital. A total of 143 patients underwent 207 exchange transfusions. Jaundice is not a disease by itself, but rather, a sign that results from hyperbilirubinemia, the excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. Identify neonates requiring a higher level of care and efficiently coordinate transfer. Bilitool is designed to help clinicians assess the risks toward the development of hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice in newborns over 35 weeks gestational age.
Opisthotonus severe hyperextension causing backward arching of the head, neck, and spine. An exchange transfusion is indicated for any infant in whom the degree of hyperbilirubinaemia cannot be adequately controlled by phototherapy alone. Exchange transfusion for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in. Continue until the total exchange volume is reached. For most babies, jaundice is not an indication of an underlying disease, and this early jaundice termed physiological jaundice is generally harmless. Effect of exchange transfusion on brain perfusion and electrocortical brain activity in newborn lambs.
Facilitybased constraints to exchange transfusions for neonatal. The implications of this observation and the use of evoked potential recording in neonatal jaundice are discussed. Less common blood group associated with causing severe haemolytic disease of the newborn. Nice guideline draft july 2015 page 9 of 43 update information this guideline is an update of nice guideline cg98 published may 2010 and will replace it. Manage neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, including referral to the neonatal intensive care unit for exchange transfusion. Blood exchange transfusion for infants with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The need for exchange transfusion has been reduced due to improved bilirubin surveillance, phototherapy, immunoprophylaxis with anti rh ig, and intrauterine transfusion of nonmaternal rbcs. Blood exchange transfusion bet was introduced in the late 1940s to decrease the mortality attributable to rhesus hemolytic disease of the newborn and to prevent kernicterus in surviving infants. As early as 1724, juncker, in the conspectus medicinae theoreticopraticae, began distinguishing between true jaundice and.
The medical term for jaundice in babies is neonatal jaundice. Approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm babies develop jaundice in the first week of life, and about 10% of breastfed babies are still jaundiced at 1 month. Nw newborn clinical guideline exchange transfusion. Exchange transfusion et provides rapid reduction of circulating bilirubin, so it could represent appropriate treatment in many cases. Tsb within 2 mgdl of exchange transfusion threshold tsb within 24 mgdl of exchange transfusion threshold tsb 4 mgdl below exchange transfusion threshold or down iv not routinely indicated evaluate for discharge. Discuss the indications for exchange transfusion with the appropriate specialist. Neonatal jaundice is common and is usually a benign condition in the newborn affecting 50% of term infants and 80% of preterm infants in first week of life.
Jaundice is a blood disease thats fairly common in newborns during. In the case of infants nearing exchange transfusion level, the infant should not come out of phototherapy to feed as this is a. If values greatly exceed this level, if phototherapy is unsuccessful in reducing the maximum bilirubin level, or if there are signs of kernicterus, exchange transfusion is indicated. Jun 01, 2007 about 50% of term and 80% of preterm babies develop jaundice, which usually appears 24 days after birth, and resolves spontaneously after 12 weeks. If there are signs of bilirubin encephalopathy an immediate exchange transfusion is recommended. Exchange transfusion 200911 exchange transfusion see jaundice guideline exchange transfusion replaces withdrawn baby blood with an equal volume of donor blood discuss all cases with neonatal consultant indications anaemia at birth from blood group incompatibilities if no transfusion given inutero, to remove antibodies and correct. Phototherapy is generally very effective for newborn jaundice and has few side effects, although your baby may develop a temporary rash and diarrhoea. Neonatal exchange transfusion introduction double volume exchange transfusion is mainly used for the management of hyperbilirubinaemia and haemolytic disease of the newborn, when other methods of treatment such as early and intensive use of phototherapy have been ineffective.
Exchange transfusion et in neonates is used to treat severe hyperbilirubinaemia and anaemia secondary to haemolytic disease of the newborn hdn. Exchange transfusion neonatal clinical guideline v1. Age h bilirubin mgdl phototherapy exchange transfusion. Neonatal exchange transfusion in a nontertiary hospital setting. Exchange transfusion is a procedure performed within newborn services for the treatmentcorrection of anaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, and to remove antibodies associated with red blood cell haemolysis. Exchange the infants blood for normal saline, in increments not to exceed 5% of the estimated total blood volume. Exchange transfusion occupies a unique place in the history of neonatal jaundice because it was the first intervention to permit effective control of severe hyperbilirubinemia and prevent kernicterus. New recommendations have been added for the types of phototherapy used for babies with neonatal jaundice. The term jaundice comes from the root jaune, the french word for yellow. If phototherapy indicated determine if tsb is within 50. Haemolysis resulting from major or minor blood group antigen incompatibility is the most common cause of early and aggressive haemolysis. Neonatal jaundice is the yellowing discoloration of the skin and sclera of a neonate, which is caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood. Hemolytic disease of the newborn introduction and definition. As a result, many pediatricians may not have performed or even seen one.
Guideline coverage includes nicu kemh, nicu pch and nets wa. Treat newborns, when indicated, with phototherapy or exchange transfusion. Hyperbilirubinemia consensus emory school of medicine. Neonatal blood transfusion and exchange transfusion. Neonatal jaundice knowledge for medical students and.
Started in 1995, this collection now contains 6767 interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and 732 chapters. The actual bilirubin level at which to implement phototherapy or. Neonatal jaundice symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Jaundice in the newborns jaundice is the most common morbidity in the first week of life, occurring in 60% of term and 80% of preterm newborn. Rarely there are other indications for exchange transfusion including volume overload. Jaundice and kernicterus guidelines and tools for health. In addition to the immediate control of hyperbilirubinemia, an exchange transfusion in immunemediated hemolytic disease also achieves 1 the. Exchange transfusion is done when other methods to reduce bilirubin have failed, and rate of rise of bilirubin is approaching dangerous levels risk of. Order appropriate volume of blood for exchange order ffp for transfusion midway through and at completion of exchange 10mlkg per transfusion appropriate red cells for exchange will be provided by rch blood bank. Note that infants with jaundice due to a haemolytic disorder usually benefit from phototherapy but may also require. Currently, phototherapy and exchange transfusion are two major effective therapeutic modalities available toady. Phototherapy decreases the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in newborns.
Blood for exchange transfusion should meet the following criteria. The role of intensive phototherapy in decreasing the need. Exchange transfusion for jaundiced newborns in the united states 1 by. Tsb below phototherapy threshold feeding adequately q23h follow up appointment scheduled. Adverse events related to exchange transfusion in newborn infants. Blood exchange transfusion for infants with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia an approach to the management of hyperbilirubinemia in the preterm infant less than 35 weeks of gestation if you have questions about any of the clinical pathways or about the process of creating a.
Exchange transfusion page 3 of 12 neonatal guideline fresh frozen plasma ffp should also be ordered with the prcs. Exchange transfusion if your baby has a very high level of bilirubin in their blood or phototherapy hasnt been effective, they may need a complete blood transfusion, known as an exchange transfusion. Exchange transfusion for neonatal jaundice cochrane. In newborn infants, jaundice can be detected by blanching the skin with digital pressure, revealing the underlying color of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Exchange transfusion and intravenous immunoglobulin use in. Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common conditions occurring in newborn infants and is characterized by elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood total serum bilirubin concentration 5 mgdl. Neonatal jaundice, exchange transfusion, kernicterus. Early aggressive phototherapy, admission to scn and consideration for exchange transfusion may be necessary. Neonatal jaundice an overview sciencedirect topics. Process of blood exchange transfusion for neonatal jaundice by umbilical catheter alshifa hospital nicu palestinegaza. Additional options include pharmacotherapy in the form of phenobarbital etc.
The procedure involves slowly removing the persons blood and replacing it with fresh donor blood or plasma. Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by hyperbilirubinemia elevated serum bilirubin concentration. Blood exchange transfusion for infants with severe neonatal. Apr 19, 2017 process of blood exchange transfusion for neonatal jaundice by umbilical catheter alshifa hospital nicu palestinegaza. Is ebt a safe and effective treatment for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.
To continue to observe but no additional intervention repeat test phototherapy exchange blood transfusion unlikely for physiological. Within 23 mgdl of exchange transfusion should be referred to immediate inpatient. An exchange transfusion involves removing aliquots of patient blood and replacing with donor blood in order to remove abnormal blood components and circulating toxins whilst maintaining adequate circulating blood volume. Aimpurpose of guideline to help staff manage significant jaundice safely and prevent complications of brain damage and kernicterus. The assessment of jaundice must be performed in a welllit room or, preferably, in daylight at a window. For grade evaluation of interventions for neonatal jaundice. American academy pediatrics american academy of pediatrics subcommittee on hyperbilirubinemia. Exchange transfusion an overview sciencedirect topics. Exchange transfusion et, however, is considered to be the most effective and quickest method to lower the bilirubin level in infants at high risk of kernicterus. Double volume exchange transfusion clinical pathway icu.
The most common cause of neonatal jaundice is a physiological rise in unconjugated bilirubin, which results from hemolysis of fetal hemoglobin and an immature hepatic metabolism of bilirubin. Double volume exchange transfusion is mainly used for the management of. Phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion are primary treatment modes for significant haemolytic disease of the newborn hdn, to lower serum bilirubin and reduce risk of kernicterus. The main indication for neonatal exchange transfusion is to prevent neurological complications kernicterus caused by a rapidlyrising unconjugated bilirubin. An et is indicated when hyperbilirubinemia remains at dangerous levels despite intensive phototherapy and is particularly useful when there is excessive haemolysis.
Neonatal jaundice pdf 525p this note covers the following topics. Blood exchange transfusion has become a rare event in most developed countries. Phototherapy is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal jaundice, and homebased phototherapy is now being. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia pediatrics merck manuals. Jaundice is the most common cause of readmission after discharge from birth hospitalization. Neonatal jaundice national institute for health and care.
Separate guidelines are available for the evaluation and management of late onset jaundice 710 days or later and prolonged jaundice sbr 200. Ffp should never be added to the bag of prcs, but rather administered in a separate. Outcome of exchange blood transfusions done for neonatal. The most important piece of the evaluation is distinguishing between unconjugated and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia since a conjugated. The serum bilirubin level required to cause jaundice varies with skin tone and body region, but jaundice usually becomes visible on the sclera at a level of 2 to 3 mgdl 34 to 51 mcmoll and on the face at about 4 to 5 mgdl 68 to 86 mcmoll. Nursing guideline for treating neonatal jaundice with. The effectiveness of intensive phototherapy in reducing exchange.1010 365 607 551 1298 1428 22 1497 917 822 745 1391 1314 1137 1241 1008 692 25 1587 721 68 249 1597 1568 543 1429 949 1629 967 1626 1443 793 1267 295 957 679 733 530 713 280 886 307